Malawi is a landlocked region that relies on Mozambican ports on the Indian Sea for transportation of imported and exported things. The project will open new doors for Malawi and decrease transport costs. Currently Malawi uses Beira and Nacala slot in Mozambique from which transporters cover a go back distance around 1700km from Blantyre. Using Nsanje slot, transporters now covers a distance of 238 km for a return journey to Blantyre as opposed to Beira port. Reduction in transport costs may result in reduced amount of other goods such as for example agricultural inputs. This will be a advantage to the Malawians who be based upon agriculture for their economy and it will also improve food protection in the country.
The project will also offer Malawi with a multimodal transportation linkage to other land locked countries of Zimbabwe and Zambia; the people of Nsanje district will get empowered socially and economically due to new infrastructure and markets which will be established to aid the providers of the interface; the visual landscapes of Nsanje district will improve with the setting up of the interface; creation of temporary and permanent jobs; time saving and reduction on deterioration of vehicles due to reduced travel distance.
Though the project could have positive effects but will also have negative impacts such as for example loss of fishing area and profits for fishermen who utilized to fish along the shire river; surroundings and water pollution because of construction work that may take place on the website; the project will affect the water species discovered along this area of the Shire river; empowerment of people socially and economically may increase the spreading of HIV and AIDS as this districts previously has raised percentage of HIV patients because of cultural beliefs; urbanization because of viable environment for tiny scale and large scale businesses; natural visual scenery will be affected by new built structures, risk to flooding along the Shire river; conflicts with hosting communities and negative influences on religion and local culture.
The project will be located at Nsanje District in Malawi. Malawi is situated between latitudes of 09Ëš and 17Ëš south and longitudes of 33Ëš and 37Ëš east. Malawi is usually bordered by Zambia in the East, Tanzania in the North and Mozambique in the South and West. Nsanje District Assembly is found at the end of Southern Malawi where Malawi shares borders with Mozambique. It is as of this place that the shire river passes along the boundary between Malawi and Mozambique flowing into Zambezi river and to Indian Ocean through Chinned Port. The site was selected as a result of the wider width of the river as it links to Zambezi River supplying an improved place for the port. Location map is shown with regards to the Shire River and site for the proposed slot.
Malawi Map showing area of Nsanje, Imagery demonstrating location of the slot, Shire River and Nacala corridor from Mozambique.
MALAWI’S EIA LEGISLATURE
In Malawi the Environmental Act enacted in 1996, supplies the legal framework for the safety and management of the surroundings, the conservation and sustainable utilization of natural resources. EIA techniques happen to be outlined on section 24 of the Take action to which all individual and public programmers must abide by. The Work has outlined projects for which EIA is usually mandatory before execution of the job as gazetted in section 24. The section likewise stipulates all activities that must be completed by the developer before any execution. The developer has to submit a project quick to the Environmental Affairs Section (EAD) who administers the environmental Work. The Director assesses the project and is backed by know-how from the complex committee of environmental affairs (TEC) which take part in the Environmental Impact Evaluation (EIA) requirements; job briefs reviews; Conditions of Reference (ToRs) and EIA reviews; develop and monitor job auditing program and recommended plan of action to the Director though the director isn’t bound by the TEC record. The act as well stipulates that just the EAD is certainly mandated to issue out certificate under section 26(3) that an EAI is required.
For thorough evaluation of project activities that may have significant effect on the environment by the port programmer, the EIA is backed by many Malawi government Acts and policies as indicated in desk 1 and other intercontinental legislatures as fastened on appendix I actually.
Malawi legal documents
Table 1 – EIA Legislature in Malawi
4.2 EIA Process
The EAI procedure is carried out in phases in a task cycle in which EIA requirements are included within the routine (EMA, 1996). The project cycle is carried out in phases and starts with a thought then pre-feasibility and feasibility analyses before an in depth design and implementation stage. The aim of the cycle it to provide detailed and up-to-date environmental facts at key levels in the cycle. This helps the developer to identify early effects from an EIA and in a position to take action on any significant changes and adopt them during project implementation. The project routine also provides opportunity to the programmer, consultant, relevant authorities, interested parties and everyone to examine the impacts of the project on the environment and offer alternatives on undesireable effects. The project cycle focuses on identification of adverse impacts, acceptable alternatives and assessing the relevant concerns so as to ensure that the EIA becomes a useful to decision makers. All the activities in the project cycle are performed through screening and scoping.
Screening allows a project to end up being assessed whether an EIA is required or not really and establishes the foundation for scoping (Theodorsdouttir, 1999). In Malawi, screening is done through a project short which is a document that highlights critical issues prepared by the developer and in this case the Malawi Authorities and can be submitted to the Director of Environmental Affairs Department and who is backed by TEC to evaluate whether it needs EIA or not. Construction of an inland port is among the tasks that EIA is mandatory in Malawi therefore an EIA is usually to be completed (EMA, 1996).
Scooping ensures that all relevant issues to be addressed in an EIA are set up and makes sure that all relevant authorities, interested and influenced parties are involved, alternatives to the project are determined and to ensure that the resources are conserved and utilized wisely. In Malawi, complete identification of the significant impacts are based on the Terms of Reference (ToRs) which are prepared by the developer and accepted by the director (EMA, 1996). ToRs are identified in the scooping process. The figure I beneath outlines all of the EIA procedure in Malawi.
Figure I – EIA method in Malawi
Sources: Handbook on Environmental Evaluation Legislation in the SADC Region
Scooping is performed through consultations and at different
key stages, diverse organisations and individuals participate in the EIA review as shown in Table II
4.3 ASSESSMENT METHOD
There are various methods of assessing environmental job impacts such as for example checklist, network diagrams, graphical comparisons overlays and matrices (FAO, 1995) In this assessment matrices as proven in figure 2 have already been used to develop the most significant impacts as matrices easily identify impacts in a summary form and provides better bases for evaluating most significant kinds Leopold et al. (1971).
Figure II Matrices
4.4 Environmental Plan
Impacts identified in the matrices are further more assessed by Stakeholders, EAD, TEC, general public and the developer to evaluate the impacts and also identify mitigation methods. In environmentally friendly plan potential testmyprep.com job impacts are identified in regard to job phases as indicated in Appendix II
The most significant impact- Water Pollution
The most significant environmental impact on this project is water pollution. Water pollution may be the contamination of water bodies through pollutants which happen to be discharged directly into water bodies without sufficient measures to eliminate harmful compounds. Water pollution might take place because of effluents derived from soil erosion, accidental spills, waste essential oil, fertilizers and detergents, rock and pesticides, warmth and micro-organisms (JICA/GOK, 1992).
5.1 Significant Impacts
Drinking Water: Water is considered safe if it can be used by humans and additional living creatures with no result (UNEP, 1999). Polluted drinking water is not secure for having for the communities living along the river and can certainly wipe away a big population of human beings and pets or animals as the birds proven in figure3.
Figure 3 -www.google.co.uk
Loss of fish: Polluted water through essential oil spills and chemical leakage may cause lack of fish and other normal water species. This might lead to loss of profits for fishermen as proven in Figure 4.
Figure 4 – www.google.co.uk
Visual impact: Algae may develop on stagnant normal water and affect the visible impact of the surface water as shown on figure 5.
Figure 5 – www.google.co.uk
Waterborne diseases: polluted normal water may cause waterborne diseases such as for example cholera.
Ordour: Sediments in the drinking water under the structures could cause drinking water stagnation and after sometime the drinking water may produce odours that could be nuisance to the people working around the area
Impact on irrigation: Drinking water polluted with chemical compounds and essential oil spills may impact irrigated crops.
Recreation: Polluted water will never be best for swimming or recreation as it may affect the people in touch with polluted water.
To reduce normal water pollution, there is need to offer mitigation and monitoring actions as proven in table III under.
Possible Mitigation measures
Prediction and Monitoring measures
Landfills and site development
Careful site variety and layout style is vital that you reduce stagnation. Dredging should be carried out to remove any deposits and sediments in the water
Enhance the water regulation Action to punish offenders who deliberately pollute water
Construction of break waters, bays and terminals
Make a fence around the building area
Quarterly meetings during the construction phase ought to be held to keep an eye on the adverse testmyprep.com environmental impacts. TEC and EAD to monitor the activities
Dredging and disposal of dredged materials
Proper disposal of dredged materials plays a significant role in preserving the environment.
Monitor sediment deposits and use Secchi disk to check depth and visibility (US, 1992).
Encourage recycling and devise correct means of disposing both sturdy and liquid waste
District Assembly to monitor all dumping sites and recommend residents accordingly.
Transportation of construction materials
Proper handling of recycleables is required i.e.
Cover cement and sprinkle normal water frequently on dusty roads
Monitor handling of the raw materials.
Vessel traffic operations
Appropriate regulations should be put in destination to cater for ship discharge, emissions and oil from cargo, ship spills and disposal of waste
Use of Microwave distant sensing satellites and receivers aboard ship vessels to keep an eye on ship movements, oil spills and grease and ship leakage in the river (Woodhouse, 2006).
Use predictions products to monitor water top quality such as for example Artificial Intelligence versions, Artificial Neural Network products and Mathematical assimilations (Najah et al., 2009)
Cargo handling and storage
Special equipment ought to be provided for handling cargo and transportation of items and Provision should be made for periodical clean-up of floats and wastes
Developer to screen that cargo handling equipment is regularly serviced
Waterfront and cargo operations
Provide restrictions on effluent from waterfront industries and monitoring of drinking water quality
TEC to screen all activities probably by employing a full time environmental specialist.
Transportation of goods
All roads leading to the port must have bitumen in order to avoid dust which might pollute the water.
Stakeholders to monitor where they right now there expertise is required.
5.2 Acts that govern the legislature for drinking water are;
Environmental Management Act 1996 which stipulates the conservation and sustainability of usage of natural resources and normal water is among the natural resources.
Water Resources Act 1969
The work governs the control conservation, apportionment and utilization of water resources in Malawi.
Water Works Act
The act will make an offence if any person willfully and negligently causes water pollution.
5.3 Baseline data
Baseline data may be the collection of relevant details proposed in the project with the purpose of identifying the status and tendencies of environmental factors (e.g., drinking water pollutant concentrations). This presents chances to predict changes when it comes to importance and provide for method of detecting actual changes after the project is set up. Baseline data plays an important role in EIA assessment and monitoring of environmental results (Wathern, 1988).
Alpha (1995) recommends the next data to be collected for checking water pollution:
Use of questionnaire to obtain additional details from the communities around the district Assembly on the activities that happen along the river
Measurements on sediments.
Maps demonstrating river catchments area
5.3.1 Parameters for checking water quality
UNEP prescribes measurement of varied parameters for assessing, water quality and included in these are:-
Temperature – recommended is definitely between 25 and 35
Suspended solids- it is recommended is 30mg/l
Biochemical oxygen Demand (5-time at 20 C) Tidy water is between 4mg/l to 10 and more than 10 is considered polluted
Heavy metal concentration should not go beyond 0.1mg/l in combination
Lead (PB) less than 0.1mg/l
Mercury (Hg) less than 0.005 mg/l
Silver (Ag) , Zinc(Zn), Chromium (Cr), Arsenic (As) significantly less than 0.05 mg/l
Nickel (nI) less than 0.3 mg/l
Copper (Cu), Cyanides (CN), Hydrogen Sulphide (S) significantly less than 1.0mg/l
Free Ammonia (NH 3 ) less than 0.2mg/l
Phenolic Compounds (Phenol) 0.001 mg/l
Nitrates (N) 10mg/l
Floating materials natural oils foam and greases.
Bhardwaj, 2005, advise water quality criteria as shown in the desk below:
Measurement of water quality can only be undertaken by people with special competence and with special gear which cannot be used by a local person and the drinking water measuring instruments aren’t up-to-date and not more than enough to cover all water bodies in the united states (UNEP, 1999).
This project includes a significant effect on water which is critical to normal water species and humans therefore mitigation measures must be followed to reduce drinking water pollution in the Shire river which its impacts may have an impact over a long distance and all the way to the Indian ocean and affect so many people and all water habitats.